🐕 Blog 1 🐈Protecting Pet Health at Every Age and Stage
A regular physical examination is just as important for your pet as it is for you. Because your pet can't tell us how he or she really feels, we recommend a complete nose-to-tail physical examination at least once a year, though more frequent exams are encouraged.
A routine examination provides you and your veterinarian with the opportunity to develop a picture of your pet's overall health as well as to spot potential medical issues before they become serious health concerns. It's also an opportunity for you to ask your veterinarian important questions about your pet's health, habits and daily care. We also use this time to inform you about home healthcare for your pet and offer important advice and new information on the care of your particular type and breed of animal.
Your pet's wellness examination at my animal clinics includes my commitment to:
Listen to the heart – Early signs of cardiac disease such as heart murmurs and abnormal heart beat patterns known as arrhythmias can be heard through a stethoscope. Discovering these initial indicators of trouble ahead can lead to identifying and treating the underlying condition before it becomes a more serious health threat.
Listen to the lungs – Health issues such as infections, obstructive diseases and other problems can be detected by listening to your pet's lungs through a stethoscope. The doctor can also assess the overall pulmonary health of your pet.
Check the teeth and oral cavity – Examining your pet's teeth and mouth is an important part of preventing dental disease, which is one of the most common health concerns in pets. Very young animals, such as kittens and puppies, also need to be checked to ensure they are developing an appropriate bite and that they are losing their baby teeth at the right time. We also take the time to discuss proper home dental care with you.
Evaluate vision – All diseases follow relatively predictable processes and if found early can be more easily treated. Ocular conditions, which can also be prevented through regular care and screenings, are no exception.
Look into the ears – As with dental disease, ear disease is relatively common in many types of pets. Issues such as low-grade allergies, swimming or bathing, reactions to certain foods, mites and other parasites can all cause and contribute to otitis or ear disease. Though you may feel this is an area that can be well-handled at home, the fact is that many ear diseases are difficult to detect and require medical treatment.
Palpate the lymph nodes, abdomen and skin – By feeling the skin, we are looking for unusual lumps or swellings as well as evaluating for skin discolorations, lesions or patterns of hair loss or thinning. These can indicate the presence of more systemic problems, especially metabolic diseases, which most commonly occur in middle-aged animals.
Palpate joints and muscles – By examining the joints, legs and other areas of the body, we are able to evaluate for swollen joints, decreased muscle tone and variations in muscle size between the limbs. We also observe your pet's gait for developmental issues. In puppies, we look for early indications of hip or elbow problems. For older pets, we look for signs of arthritis, which can be well-treated if found early.
🐕 Blog 2 🐈Good Communication Leads to Good Health
We also realize our expertise is of little value if we do not share our knowledge with you. The foundation of a well-functioning doctor/client relationship is the free flow and exchange of information so you can become a knowledgeable and empowered caretaker for your pet. This includes educating you on how to overcome the particular challenges of pet ownership in our city as well as making you aware of some of the unique advantages of raising a pet in Kolkata. Unfortunately, despite the most aggressive preventative treatment, our pets may experience a periodic illness or injury. The skill and extensive education of the doctors allows us to effectively manage complex medical and surgical challenges beyond those typically handled in general veterinary practices. Our capabilities and resources also reduce the frequency of referrals to expensive specialists. Your pet is able to receive care from people he or she knows, in a comfortable and familiar setting.
🐕 Blog 3 🐈What and Why about Blood tests
What is a blood test?
Regular blood testing is one of the most important ways to keep track of your overall physical well-being. Getting tested at routine intervals can allow you to see the way your body changes over time and empower you to make informed decisions about your health.
Why blood tests required in dogs and cats?
BLOOD tests are most and minimum requirements for confirmatory diagnosis. In cases where straightforward diagnosis cant be made by veterinarian may take the help of blood tests to aid him. The following situations can result in the need of blood tests for your pets:
🐶 1) On the first veterinary visit after bringing in the pet: This is recommended to establish healthy baseline tests, and also check for any congenital abnormalities or potential concerns.
🐱 2) During semi-annual wellness exams: This is recommended if your veterinarian suggests it as part of a thorough physical examination because blood work, along with other bodily fluids like urine, can help identify conditions that physical examination cannot. Although for younger pets annual pet blood work is recommended.
🐶 3) Illness- Blood tests are suitable for pets showing abnormal health conditions such as continuous vomition.
🐱 4) Pre-surgical tests: Bloodwork is used to determine the general health of the liver and kidneys along with CBC, which helps a veterinarian select the safest form of anesthesia. Blood work can also help determine the surgical risk level in infirmed, elderly or injured patients.
🐶 5) During senior wellness exams: Blood tests are usually recommended for mature, senior and geriatric pets as part of their periodic wellness exams. These are extremely beneficial, as we often see senior pets return to a more youthful state of being when blood tests identify an issue that can be easily treated. Moreover most senior pets generally develop some sort of health issues which are needed to be monitored on a regular basis. Blood tests are very common. They are ordered by healthcare providers to: Find out how well organs such as your kidneys, liver, heart, or thyroid are working. Help diagnose diseases such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and viral diseases.
🐶 Important blood tests 🐶🐱
Let's take a closer look at some common blood tests.
1. Complete blood count
A routine complete blood count (CBC) checks for levels of 10 different components of every major cell in your blood: white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
Important components this test measures include red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit.
Here's the typical trusted range of results, although every laboratory may have its own range that varies slightly:
Component Normal rangered blood cells blood cells red blood cells (cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body)
Red blood cells count :
Dog : 4.3–5.9 million/mm3;
Cat : 3.5–5.5 million/mm3
white blood cells (immune system cells in the blood)4,500–11,000/mm3
platelets (the substances that control the clotting of the blood)150,000–400,000/mm3
hemoglobin (protein within the red blood cells that carries oxygen to organs and tissues, and carbon dioxide back to the lungs)
Dog : 13.5–17.5 grams/deciliter (g/dL);
Cat : 12.0–16.0 g/dL
hematocrit (percentage of blood made of red blood cells)
Dog : 41–53%
Cat : 36–46%
Abnormal levels of these components may indicate :
nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B6 or B12
anemia (iron deficiency)
immune system disorders
Based on your results, your doctor will order follow-up tests to confirm abnormal levels and a possible diagnosis.
2. Basic metabolic panel
A basic metabolic panel (BMP) usually checks for levels of compounds in the blood:
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
This test may require you to fast for at least 8 hours before your blood is drawn, depending on the instructions of your doctor and what the test is measuring.
Abnormal results may indicate:
Your doctor will perform follow-up tests to confirm a diagnosis.
3. Comprehensive metabolic panel
A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) includes all the measurements of a BMP as well as additional proteins and substances related to liver function, such as:
alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme mostly found in the bones and liver that's involved in several bodily processes
alanine aminotransferase (ALT), an enzyme found in the liver
aspartate aminotransferase (AST), an enzyme found in the liver and other tissues within the body
bilirubin, which is waste resulting from the breakdown of red blood cells that the liver filters out
The same conclusions can be drawn from a CMP as from a BMP for the same substances that a BMP covers. Other abnormal levels can also indicate underlying conditions, such as:
High levels & Low levels ALP
- bile duct blockage
- gallbladder inflammation
- Paget's disease
- bone metabolism disorders
- heart surgery
- zinc deficiency
- heart conditions
- abnormal red blood cell destruction (hemolysis)
- adverse medication reactions
- bile duct blockage
- Gilbert's syndrome
- hepatitis not a concern
- abnormal red blood cell destruction (hemolysis)
- adverse medication reactions
- bile duct blockage
- Gilbert's syndrome
- hepatitis not a concern
4. Lipid panel
This test checks levels of two types of cholesterol:
high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol
low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol
HDL is "good" because it removes harmful substances from your blood and helps the liver break them down into waste. LDL is "bad" because it can cause plaque to develop in your arteries, increasing your risk of heart disease.
You may need to fast for at least 8 hours before this test.
Here are the ranges for each type:
HighLowHDL >60 mg/dL
Dog: < 40 mg/dL;
Cat: < 50 mg/dL
LDL > 160 mg/dL < 100 mg/dL
Normal levels can also vary by age.
5. Thyroid panel
A thyroid panel, or thyroid function test, checks how well your thyroid is producing and reacting to certain hormones, such as:
Triiodothyronine (T3). Along with T4, this regulates your heart rate and body temperature.
Thyroxine (T4). Along with T3, this regulates your metabolism and how you grow.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This helps regulate the levels of hormones your thyroid releases.
Your thyroid is a tiny gland in your neck. It helps regulate bodily functions like your mood, energy level, and overall metabolism.
Here are normal results:
T3: 80–180 nanograms per deciliter of blood (ng/dL)
T4: 0.8–1.8 ng/dL in adults.
TSH: 0.5–4 milli-international units per liter of blood (mIU/L)
Abnormal levels of these hormones can indicate numorus problems, such as:
low protein levels
thyroid growth disorders
abnormal levels of testosterone or estrogen
6. Cardiac biomarkers
Enzymes are proteins that help your body accomplish certain chemical processes, such as breaking down food and clotting blood. They're used throughout your body for many vital functions.
Abnormal enzyme levels can indicate many conditions.
Common enzymes tested include:
Creatine kinase (CK). This is an enzyme primarily located in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. When muscle damage happens, CK seeps into the blood in growing amounts.
Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB). These enzymes are found in your heart. They often increase in your blood after a heart attack or other heart injury.
Troponin. This is a heart enzyme that can leak into your blood and results from heart injury.
Here are the normal ranges for the enzyme listed above:
CK: 30–200 U/L
CK-MB: 0–12 IU/L
troponin: <1 ng/mL
This test measures the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), also known as lactic acid dehydrogenase, in your blood or sometimes in other body fluids. LDH is a type of protein, known as an enzyme. LDH plays an important role in making your body's energy. It is found in almost all the body's tissues, including those in the blood, heart, kidneys, brain, and lungs.
When these tissues are damaged, they release LDH into the bloodstream or other body fluids. If your LDH blood or fluid levels are high, it may mean certain tissues in your body have been damaged by disease or injury.
Other names: LD test, lactic dehydrogenase, lactic acid dehydrogenase
An LDH test is most often used to:
Find out if you have tissue damage
Monitor disorders that cause tissue damage. These include anemia, liver disease, lung disease, and some types of infections.
Monitor chemotherapy for certain types cancer. The test may show if treatment is working.
8. Coagulation panel
Coagulation tests measure how well your blood clots and how long it takes for your blood to clot. Examples include the prothrombin time (PT) test and fibrinogen activity test.
Clotting is a crucial process that helps you stop bleeding after a cut or wound. But a clot in a vein or artery can be deadly since it can block blood flow to your brain, heart, or lungs. This can cause a heart attack or stroke.
Coagulation test results vary based on your health and any underlying conditions that may affect clotting.
Results from this test can be used to diagnose:
excessive bleeding (hemophilia)
vitamin K deficiency
9. DHEA-sulfate serum test
The dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) hormone comes from your adrenal glands. This test measures whether it's too high or too low.
In men, DHEA helps develop traits like body hair growth, so low levels are considered abnormal. In women, high levels can cause typically male traits, like excess body hair, to develop, so low levels are normal.
Low levels may be caused by:
High levels in men or women can result from:
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
benign or malignant tumor on the adrenal gland
polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
10. C-reactive protein test
C-reactive protein (CRP) is made by your liver when tissues in your body are inflamed. High CRP levels indicate inflammation from a variety of causes, including:
bacterial or viral infection
autoimmune diseases, such Lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
inflammation related to diabetes
inflammation related to physical trauma or from habits like smoking
The higher the level, the higher the risk of heart disease:
<0.3 mg/dL: normal
0.3 to 1.0 mg/dL: minor elevation can be associated with a person's sex, body mass index (BMI), or with conditions like depression or insomnia
1.0 to 10.0 mg/dL: moderate elevation usually caused by systemic inflammation, such as from an autoimmune disease, bronchitis, heart attack, or cancer
>10.0 mg/dL: marked elevation typically caused by a serious bacterial or viral infection, major trauma, or systemic vasculitis
>50.0 mg/dL: severe elevation usually caused by an acute bacterial infection
🐕 Blog 4 🐈Protect your pet from Hot Summer and prevent fatal heat stroke. Help strays too.
1) Don't shave but trim long hairs,
2) Offer plenty of water to hydrate,
3) Comfortable shade,
4) Protect from Prevent paw burning,
5) Don't expose to heavy sun,
6) Keep an eye on room humidity
7) Scheduled soothing bath,
8) Don't let your pet in a closed room or car,
9) Be careful about heat stroke,
10) Kill ticks, lice, fleas.
In any sign visit your Doctor.
NB: Please keep one water filled bowl outside your house for strays, Please allow stray animals to rest at natural shades.
🐕 Blog 5 🐈Top food for pet cats
1) boiled fish ( preferred salmon or tuna or rohu or katla )
2) boiled chicken
3) boiled chicken liver
4) boiled egg
5) Fish oils
7) Cooked and smashed potato
8) Veggies - pumpkin, peas
10) Yoghurt, curd, & ice cream
NB: Please avoid give raw fish and meat, it's contain huge bacterial load
🐕 Blog 6 🐈Factors which should affect how much food to feed your cat 🐈🐱
When it comes to how much to feed your cat, there are a few things to consider:
🐱 1. Age of cat
🐱 2. Weight of Cat
🐱 3. Energy level of your Cat
🐱 4. Whether cat is pregnant or nursing kittens
🐱 5. If your cat is semi-indoor or full time indoor cat.
🐱 6. Finance and budget
🐱 7. Environmental temperature
🐱 8. Breed of cats
🐱 9. Physical condition any diseased or not
🐱 10. Type of food , Home made or Commercial cat food
Talk to your vet about the diet chart. Few vet recommend cat food products whereas few vets recommend home made food whereas majority suggest a mixture of both. Each diet has their pros and cons and diet must be individualized as every cat is different and have different likings and disliking. 🐈🐈